Chemical elements
  Thulium
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Production
    Application
    Chemical properties

Thulium Ionization Energy






The Thulium Ionization Energy is the energy required to remove from atom one mole of electrons with subsequent production of positively charged ion of Thulium.
Tm -> Tm+ + e-
This process can be repeated many times, but the energy cost is increased dramatically. The general equation for the Thulium is:
TmN+ -> Tm(N+1)+ + e-


Ionization Energy

Tm -> Tm1+ = 596.7 kJ/mol = 142.75 Kcal/mol
Tm1+ -> Tm2+ = 1163 kJ/mol = 278.23 Kcal/mol
Tm2+ -> Tm3+ = 2285 kJ/mol = 546.65 Kcal/mol
Tm3+ -> Tm4+ = 4119 kJ/mol = 985.41 Kcal/mol
© Copyright 2008-2012 by atomistry.com